Colon cancer and rectal cancer are grouped together and called colorectal cancer. Colon cancer begins with the growth of pre-cancerous polyps from the wall of the colon and rectum. Dr. Swapnil Sharma is Colorectal Cancer surgeon practicing in Mumbai.
These cancers can also be called colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they start. Colon cancer and rectal cancer are normally grouped because they have many things in common. Colon cancers are one of the most usual type of cancers in India.
Colon and Rectum
Colon and rectum are the parts of intestine, which is the last part of the digestive system. The colon is about 5 feet long which absorbs water from intestinal content and forms stool.
The rectum is the last 12 cm (almost 5 inches) of the colon, where the body stocks stool until you have a bowel action.
Difference between Colon Cancer and Colorectal Cancer
Types of Colon Cancer
More than 95% of Colon cancers are adenocarcinomas. Nearly 90% of Colon adenocarcinomas started as adenomas, which are a type of polyp that may become cancer.
About 20% of Colon cancers are acquired or are connected with a strong history of Colon cancer in the family. Type of colon cancer that are associated with family history includes:
a. Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer Syndrome or HNPCC (also called Lynch syndrome): accounts for 5% to 7% of colon cancers
b. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): causes 100 to 1000 of polyps in the GI tract
- Family history of Colon Cancer or Polyps
- Genetic cancer syndromes: Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer Syndrome (HNPCC) or Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)
- Diet: processed meats or meats cooked at very high heat, you may be at higher risk for colon cancer
- Diabetes Type 2 – If you have diabetes and insulin resistance may have an enhanced risk of Colon Cancer
- Cigarette smoking – If you have smoked cigarettes for a high time you are more likely to grow and die from Colon cancer
- Heavy intake of alcohol may raise your chance of colon cancer
Colon cancer usually does not have signs in the early stages. Most colon cancers begin as polyps, small non-cancerous growths on the colon wall that can grow bigger and become destructive. As polyps or cancers develop, they can block the intestines and can cause obstruction. Signs of Colon cancer may include:
- Rectal bleeding
- Blood in the stool after a bowel action
- Diarrhea or prolonged illness
- A change in size or form of stool
- Trouble or urge to have a bowel action when there is no need
- Abdominal pain or cramping pain in your lower abdomen
- Weight loss without dieting
These signs usually do not mean you have Colon cancer. But if you see one or more of them for more than two weeks, consult your doctor.
The signs of colorectal cancer normally appear only with advanced disease. If your doctor finds something different in screening or you have any of the signs of colorectal cancer, further tests will be required to diagnose the condition.
- Digital rectal exam (DRE): The doctor enters a gloved finger into the rectum to sense for polyps or other difficulties.
- Fecal occult blood test (FOBT): This test finds blood in the stool
- Colonoscopy: to see directly inside entire colon.
- Biopsy: Tissue biopsy is used during colonoscopy from any suspicious region. A tiny piece of tissue is removed with a special tool passed through the scope. The sample is sent to the pathology lab for examination by a pathologist who looks for cancer cells in the specimen. Genetic tests may also be done on the biopsy specimens to recognise specific gene mutations in the cancer cells. These examinations are available at very few centres in the country
- Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS): An endoscope is entered into the rectum. A probe at the end bounces high-energy sound waves off abdominal organs to make a picture. Also called endosonography.
- Imaging Test:
- CT Scan: cross sectional imaging
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan
- PET/CT (positron emission tomography) scan
- Virtual colonoscopy or CT (computed tomography) colonoscopy
- Double-contrast barium enema (DCBE): Barium is a chemical that provides the bowel wall to show up on an X-ray. A barium solution is given by enema, and then a set of X-rays is taken.
- Blood test for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): CEA is a protein, or tumor marker, which is produced by tumor cells. This examination also can be used to see out if the tumor has come back after treatment.
Surgery is the most usual treatment for colon cancer, especially if it is a localised disease. As for many cancers, surgery for colon cancer is most successful when done by a surgeon with a great deal of knowledge in the procedure.
Laparoscopic surgery The word “laparoscopy” means to look inside the abdominal hole with a special camera or scope. To do a laparoscopy, between 3 and 6 small (5-10 mm) cuts are made in the stomach. The laparoscope and special laparoscopic tools are entered through these small holes. The surgeon is then guided by the laparoscope, which gives a picture of the intestinal organs on a video monitor.
A colonoscopy, which is a large tube with a camera on the end, is entered into the rectum and guided to the polyp. A tiny, scissor-like device or wire loop removes the polyp.
The region of the colon where the cancer is, along with some healthy surrounding muscle, is removed. The associated lymph nodes are removed and looked at under a scope. Usually, the doctor then rejoins the sections of the colon. This operation also is called a hemicolectomy or partial colectomy.
Prolife offers the most up-to-date and effective chemotherapy choices for Colon cancer. Drugs are given by mouth or intravenously
Targeted therapy targets cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue conditions that add to cancer growth and survival. Targeted therapy blocks the increase and spread of cancer cells while restricting the damage to normal cells.
Radiation therapy uses strong energy sources, such as X-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. It might be used to withdraw large cancer before an operation so that it can be removed more quickly.
When surgery isn’t an option, radiation therapy might be used to reduce signs, such as pain. Sometimes radiation is mixed with chemotherapy.
Colon cancer is the 3rd most usually occurring cancer in men and the 2nd most usually occurring cancer in women. There were over 1.8 million new cases, Colon cancer in 2018.
The Constant Update & research says eating processed meat, red meat, and alcoholic drinks, higher body obesity and adult attained a height to raise the risk of Colon cancer. There was also clear evidence that exercise is protective against Colon cancer specifically and that whole grains, foods, including dietary fiber, dairy products, and calcium supplements & proteins decrease the risk of Colon cancer.
Why Choose Dr. Swapnil Sharma?
Dr. Swapnil Sharma, colon cancer surgeon, practicing in Mumbai, concentrates on your quality of life. He offers opens as well as minimally invasive laparoscopic surgeries, depending upon patient's condition and stage of disease, that provide successful treatment with less impact.
If chemotherapy is needed to treat Colon Cancer, Dr. Sharma offers this unique options. His globally renowned team of physicians shows the treatment for the most benefit while reducing the impact.
Dr. Swapnil Sharma is expertise in treating stage 4 colon cancer that has spread to other sections of the body like liver.